Subject or Topic of the Essay :
Since essays are a branch of literature, they cover subjects of all tastes and varieties. Considering their nature, theme, essence, place, character, manner, we can place them in the following manner :
(1). Social Essays :
Since man is a social animal and lives in a society where most of the human activities are transacted, and literature is the mirror of the society, a writer consciously or unconsciously takes his subject of the essay from the social background. The contemporary social problems – marriage, love, separation, degradation, disintegration in family are illustrated in such essays.
(2). Historical Essays :
Such essays take their subjects from history. The essayist often hints at the controversial historical documents and through such intellectual exercise, paves the way to create some new facts.
(3). Biographical Essays :
Such essays record major events in the life of great men. Such essays expound the character, greatness, and flaws of the great men. Essays on Gandhi, Gopabandhu, Nehru, Lincoln, Mandela, Indira Gandhi are such essays.
(4). Romantic Essays :
Some essays are built upon romantic plots, love, union, separation, sensation, excitement between heroes and heroines, lover and beloved. Such essays give priority to romance. So they are romantic essays.
(5). Scientific Essays :
We are living in the age of science. The scientific ideas are widely disseminating. Most of our activities are science related. Thus, the writers contribute pages for scientific essays on medical science, space science, atomic science, inventions and discoveries, their profits, and fatal consequences.
(6). Essays on Spots/Games :
Some essays are written on sports and games of a national and international type including cricket, football, tennis, athletic events, personalities related to them. Such essays are of this category.
(7). Essays on Nature :
Nature plays a spectacular role in human life. The plants, rivers, sky, birds, animals, ecosystem, environment plays a dominant role in forging our life. The essays describing the problems in ‘nature’, an imbalance in the natural system, their serious implications are called as essays o nature.
(8). Essays on Criticism :
The writer often criticizes a person, a piece of writing, any system, government action or inaction, traditional or contemporary approach through his own writing. Such essays are called essays on criticism.
(9). Essays on Travel :
The writer often narrates the experiences of his travel in brilliant detail. He describes places and people, referring to the specialties he marked there. Such essays are travel stories.
(10). Political Essays :
Every man, every nation is connected with some political activities or organization. Most of our behaviour is politically motivated. It is no wonder, therefore, that the writers give a hostage to essays built upon political propaganda election, party politics, administration, etc.
(11). Emotional Essays :
The writer is a creative artist. Thus he is bound to be emotionally attached to this or that notion, conviction. While dealing with it, he unconsciously favours his weakness, shows his sympathy, love towards it. Thus his soft-corner, serenity of mind, sober expression are marked in such essays.
(12). Reflective Essays :
These are the most difficult type of essays in which the writer is neutral, passive. He expresses his thought as an outsider without least favour. He usually deals with objects of indefinite manner, human predicaments, states of mind, ideas and attitudes, tastes and temperaments, follies and frivolities, idiosyncrasies without any hesitation, least bothering who suffers or who gets highlighted because of his writing. Such essays are exclusively mental, bear spiritual analysis, affect thought. The subject of such essays are usually religion, philosophy, psychology, literature, history, science, etc.